Monday, February 23, 2015

More on the Connection Between the Game Mehen and the Hypocephalus (Facsimile #2)

Previously I have showed the connection between Facsimile #1 (Abraham on the Altar) and the Egyptian game Senet portrayed in the Book of the Dead.  I have also shown the connection between the ancient Egyptian game Mehen (which is round) and Facsimile #2, the round Hypocephalus.  And I showed, just like how Facsimile #1 and Facsimile #2 are intimately tied together, so are Senet and Mehen.  Furthermore, I have shown the connection between the Phaistos Disk (which some scholars have identified as an ancient game, and the game Mehen.

Now I have found more interesting information, which is also intimately tied with other hieroglyphics in the Sensen Papyrus as well.  So bear with me.

In this post, I will be referring to an article that came to me in an email link from

You can retrieve this if you have an account.  The name of the article is On the Etymology of jtn and the Solar Iconography, by a scholar named Luca Miatello.  Miatello shows a graphic that shows that the sun disk hieroglyph in Egypt existed with a number of variants:

These are the glyph for Ra.  And here is where the association with the solar god Khepri, an aspect of Ra.

Form 4 of this hieroglyph for the sun disk most closely resembles Facsimile #2, a hypocephalus, with its outer rim (the following is a hypocephalus very similar to Facsimile #2):

As Miatello says, "The ring in Forms 3 and 4 represents a serpent without head and tail."  As you know, the form of the Mehen game is that of a serpent that coils inward until it comes to the center, which is sometimes represented by an eye as the thing in the center, as I showed in a previous post (  Here is the picture of the Mehen game:

And also this:

So, the similarities here are beginning to be very evident.  Of the four forms of the sun disk showed by Miatello, he says:

In Form 4, it is usually painted yellow or light brown, which are usually the colors of the uraeus, and spots of the serpent’s skin are frequently depicted on the ring.  As Westendorf indicated, the circles with the ring constituted by one or two serpents in archaic palettes are the antecedents of Forms 3 and 4, and probably all three forms had a common origin.
Miatello mentions that the sun disk was thought of as a breast by the ancient Egyptians, but that it is also probably "inspired by the phenomenon of the sun halo. A halo is a ring of
light, composed of multiple colors like the rainbow, that appears around the sun . . . caused by ice crystals in the atmosphere.  Such a phenomenon could be paralleled to a serpent encircling the sun. Spells 331–332 of the Pyramid Texts support this assumption . . ."  Then Miatello directly makes the connection to Mehen, saying, "Spell 332 can be a metaphor of the sun halo: the king is the sun, emerging in the fiery blast of the sun halo (mehen), which then disappears."  And then he shows a picture of the game Mehen from a tomb.  And then he writes:

After the Old Kingdom, the game seems to fall into oblivion, but the image of a seated god surrounded by nine concentric elliptical rings, painted in alternate colors, black and red, appears in the Middle Kingdom coffin of Sepi . . . The god is described . . . [as] "Ra within his coiled one”.  The coils that protect Ra are called . . . “paths of fire”, and the deceased has to pass through them to join the god. (Emphasis added in bold.)
And here is the picture that he shows of the seated god, encircled by the rings:

This, of course, is very similar to the SEATED GOD, in the center of a Hypocephalus.  The rings are like veils of fire that have to be passed through.  He goes on to say:

In these spells, mhn [i.e. the word Mehen] is consistently written with the sun disk determinative.  This is a strong indication that the surface surrounding the central circle in Form 2 was identified with a serpent surrounding the sun, as the rings in Forms 3 and 4. On the other hand, one should also consider that in this period such a surrounding surface was identified with the sun disk itself . . .
He then makes the connection to a connection with birth, and quotes a text where the god Shu is born from the nostrils of Atum's serpent and that "Neith has been conceived in the nose, Neith has been born from the nostril, Neith has spent the night in your bond. Neith will sit in your coils."  Remember that Kolob, the center of the Book of Abraham Hypocephalus, is the seated god figure (Khnum-Ra in that case), but that it is a WOMAN determinative hieroglyph in the Sensen papyrus to represent Kolob, as I have shown previously:

I noted in that blog post the connection between Khnum and CHILDBIRTH, and the woman hieroglyph.  As Miatello notes:  "The sun’s nose (Sr.t ra) is the center of the sun disk."  He goes on to say:
These images suggest that the central circle in Form 2, at some point was
identified with the source of the solar regeneration. Similarly to the fiery blast of
the sun halo (mehen), the mysterious solar regeneration would occur in the middle
of the sun, as young manifestation coming into being within the old one.
Now, further on in the article, he points out that it is also reminicent of a picture of concentric rings encircling a central rectangular pattern:

And another example of a similar picture is this:

He says that it has been interpreted as a "sieve, but it is probably a rectangular coiled center."  He notes that an epithet of the goddess Nut is written "with the basket determinative, which indicates that the coiled mat was associated to a coiled basket."  This is interesting in several respects because, as you may recall, I noted that the KH uniliteral hieroglyph in the Sensen Papyrus is identified by Joseph Smith as the "King of the Day", or the sun, and by him was pronounced Flos-is-es.  But it is thought of as a circular basket or sieve/sifter:

It also has lines going through it, but horizontal ones.  Here, a basket or sieve is identified with the Sun.  Furthermore, I was of the opinion that the uniliteral character in question was pronounced KH because of the association with the god Khepri and the sun, through acrophony, and the word kepher, the rising of the sun.  Of course Khepri is a sun god, and the scarab is identified with him, as Miatello shows.  He furthermore notes that this rectangular basket is reminiscent for the hieroglyph for canal, which looks kind of like a picket fence:

In general, the central motif is reminiscent of the hieroglyph of the canal . . . Presumably, the disk represents the belly of Nut, as the light pink paint of some examples indicates, with her canal of conception in the middle . . . The paths leading the sun to the rebirth in the middle of the two skies (N. and S.) are depicted around the rectangle . . . As the Sun evolves in the uterus of his mother, the concept of sun disk merges with that of disk of the sky. This explains the label of the disk “united with the great one”: the object is both the belly of Nut, in light pink color, and the sun, in yellow. Such a symbolism is re-proposed in late periods with the hypocephalus, which represents the sun disk, and whose central scene depicts the solar rebirth between the lower and upper sky. (Emphasis added in italics.)
Once again, here is the sky goddess associated with the hypocephalus.  Miatello shows a picture of the nude goddess Nut, where the sun disk hieroglyph is her belly and her two breasts.  And the hieroglyph for sn is shown three times above her head.

Once again, here is the sky goddess associated with the hypocephalus and with Kolob.  This is why the hieroglyph for Kolob in the Sensen Papyrus was the determinative for woman, and why it is linked visually with Khnum-Ra.  The woman is the sky goddess Nut, and Khnum-Ra presides over birth.  So now, we see that not only is Mehen just basically a hypocephalus, it is also a game.  And the core iconography of it links it to all the other things that we have shown in our other posts.  It is intimately connected to the Sensen papyrus.  And the sn character is shown three times above Nut, repeated three times:  sn sn sn.  Sen Sen Sen.  As Miatello writes:
The sun disk merges with the belly of Nut in a scene on the internal base of the Ptolemaic coffin of Tanethep (Louvre D39). Nut is depicted naked, with her belly shaped as the sun disk. Both the womb and the breasts of the goddess are likened to the sun disk.  The three sun disks in her body, representing three stages of the solar cycle, are evoked by three Sn signs above her head.
The sn hieroglyph looks like a cartouche as I have noted before:

And let us not forget how I have connected the Abraham character (uniliteral W) which is the rope spiral, with Mehen:

As Miatello says:
Nut is depicted naked, with her belly shaped as the sun disk. Both the womb and the breasts of the goddess are likened to the sun disk.  The three sun disks in her body, representing three stages of the solar cycle, are evoked by three sn signs above her head.
Then Miatello goes on to establish the connections between Mehen and the Uroboros, or snake circle where the snake eats its own tail.  And the image of the snake circle is shown with a sun child in it, sitting upon two lions.  Remember that Khonsu is the two bulls or two lions, the beginning and the end, the "god of the Alphabet," as I call him, of the Alpha and the Omega, the Aleph and the Tav.